AGELESS A Stem Cell Mystery

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Guide AGELESS A Stem Cell Mystery

See our disclaimer. Only a few stem cell therapies have been approved by the FDA, primarily products made from placental and umbilical cord blood and used to treat leukemia and other blood diseases. No one tracks how many injuries have occurred from unproven, direct-to-consumer treatments.

Such cases have become public in recent years only when doctors write about them in medical journals or patients file lawsuits. Two years ago, the New England Journal of Medicine published an account of a man who ended up with a huge spinal growth after getting fetal stem cell injections overseas. A year-old woman died in after a doctor at a Florida clinic injected bone marrow stem cells into the arteries of her brain. In , the same doctor infused fat-derived stem cells into the bloodstream of a man who died soon after, according to the findings of a state health department administrative hearing.

But it wasn't until that Florida's state medical board revoked that physician's license. Financial harm is also a hazard. Some clinics use high-pressure sales tactics more typical of condominium time-shares than of medical procedures - complete with recruitment seminars, on-the-spot discounts and emotional patient-testimonial videos, according to patients and former employees who attended such seminars. Some clinics list their unapproved, paid procedures as "studies" on ClinicalTrials.

Critics say they are using the database inappropriately to attract clients and give their treatments an air of legitimacy. Most trials for new experimental therapies, unlike the stem cell clinic procedures, are overseen as part of the FDA's investigational new-drug program and free for participants. But NIH doesn't independently verify the information or indicate whether a "trial" listed in the database was reviewed by the FDA.

The site recently added more visible disclaimers to warn consumers. Grassley expressed concern in his recent letter to regulators that the database is being misused. An NIH spokesperson said the agency "does not assess the quality of clinical research studies - that is the role of funders, regulators and ethics review boards, among others.

Patients who say they benefit from treatments at stem cell clinics could be experiencing the placebo effect or some biological improvement, Murry said.

As stem cell clinics multiply, so do legal complaints

For conditions like arthritis, "these cells may be able to talk to our immune system and say, 'Cool it,' " thus providing temporary relief - like a weak steroid shot. But unless such treatments are tested in rigorous trials, he said, there's no way to know whether they are safe and effective. The first stem cell clinics popped up during the early s in countries with lax regulations - like China, Russia and South Korea - and targeted desperate American "medical tourists.

For many, especially plastic surgeons, sucking out patients' adipose tissue, or fat, was already routine. Stem cell clinics have exploded in number across the United States. In , there were two; today, there are at least and likely hundreds more, according to Leigh Turner, a University of Minnesota bioethicist, and Paul Knoepfler, a stem cell biologist at the University of California at Davis, who have compiled a database.

In the past four years, at least new facilities have opened every year. The clinic that treated Tyler is in a sleepy suburb 40 minutes outside of Atlanta. It's part of the Ageless Wellness Center, which business records show was founded in by Jamie Walraven, a former emergency room physician, and nurse practitioner Linda Faulkner. For years, the two offered mostly Botox, laser hair removal and other beauty services.

In , they added stem cell treatments to their business model.

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The Georgia clinic says on its website that adult stem cells derived from fat are capable of fixing various defects and diseases throughout the body. In a promotional video for the clinic, patients say injections reduced their neck and knee pain and multiple sclerosis symptoms. Many researchers scoff at the idea that adult stem cells can circulate throughout the body correcting almost any problem. She said she doubts there are any stem cells in the processed material most clinics inject back into patients. In a June advertisement in a local newspaper, Walraven said her clinic had used fat-derived stem cells to treat multiple sclerosis, osteoarthritis, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis and Parkinson's disease.

Cells hold clues to a healthy old age

In coming weeks, she added, "We have an ophthalmologist who is going to treat three people with macular degeneration. In the spring of , as Tyler continued struggling with macular degeneration, a family friend gave her and her husband a book, "The Stem Cell Revolution. They started treating patients in California and later launched Cell Surgical Network, which now totals more than stem cell clinics nationwide, including the Ageless Wellness Center facility that treated Tyler's eyes.

For a fee, Berman and Lander teach other doctors how to extract patients' fat through liposuction and process it using a proprietary centrifuge called the "Time Machine. He said affiliated clinics are required to provide Cell Surgical Network with the outcomes of their procedures so it can track patients over time.

The two doctors say the FDA, in taking a tougher stand, is acting on behalf of the pharmaceutical industry, which doesn't want competition for its medicines. Visitors to the network website who scroll down toward the bottom of its homepage are told that "stem cell treatment is not approved by the FDA for any specific disease.

But the website lists dozens of diseases, including congestive heart failure, muscular dystrophy and stroke that Cell Surgical Network is "currently studying.

Concerns about the “Monitoring Stem Cell Research” Report

Walraven, at the Georgia clinic, had never treated macular degeneration but seemed eager to try, the Tylers said. According to the lawsuit the couple filed in a Georgia state court, the clinic said the treatment would improve Doris Tyler's vision or, at worst, have no effect. Walraven asked Robert Halpern, an Atlanta ophthalmologist, to perform the injections. In a June 30, , letter that Tyler's lawyer shared with The Washington Post, Walraven sent Halpern a brochure explaining how he could become a certified doctor within the network. Halpern injected Tyler's right eye on Sept.

The next day he injected her left eye, the lawsuit alleges. Injecting both eyes so close together is a safety risk, eye experts say, because if something goes wrong, patients can be left entirely blind.

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Thomas Albini, an ophthalmologist at the University of Miami's Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, treated Tyler after the stem cell procedure but could not reverse the damage. Albini, retained as an expert witness in the Tylers' lawsuit, said he believes the processed fat that was injected into Tyler's eyes may have contained fibroblasts - connective tissue cells that can cause scarring and "literally pull the retinas off the wall of the eye," in a process called proliferative vitreoretinopathy. The Georgia clinic, Walraven, Faulkner and Halpern declined to answer repeated calls and emailed questions.

None has responded in court to the allegations. Lander said all clinics in Cell Surgical Network use a "very, very thorough" consent form that spells out all the risks, such as, in Tyler's case, her vision potentially getting worse. The Tylers' lawyer, Andrew Yaffa, said that was a "misrepresentation. Other forms warned of possible complications from the injections, Yaffa said, but not from the stem cells themselves. Yaffa represented two women who reached confidential settlements after losing vision following stem cell injections for macular degeneration at U.

Berman said the Georgia clinic that treated Tyler "did everything right," noting that a retina specialist performed the injections and that Cell Surgical Network halted such eye injections as soon as he and Lander heard about Tyler's complications. But Ajay Kuriyan, a retinal specialist at the University of Rochester, said he and other researchers have found dozens of clinics that continue to market such eye injections on their websites. After writing that article on the three women who suffered severe eye damage at the Florida facility, Kuriyan said he and his co-authors received a flurry of calls about other cases.

Both companies, the agency said, were selling unapproved drugs - in the case of U. Stem Cell Clinic, for heart disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and diabetes, among other diseases - and deviating from proper manufacturing practices. In response, CryoStem said it would "actively engage with the agency to resolve these issues and continue to improve our quality systems and processes. Stem Cell Clinic told the FDA that it isn't making a drug and isn't subject to agency regulation, and it asserted that patients have a right to alternative treatments.

It denied having sterility problems in its operation. In an interview, Chief Science Officer Kristin Comella said the clinic no longer does eye injections and "the cases have been settled. Her goal, she added, is "to always help people achieve health and help them feel good, and when they don't, it's personally devastating.

The company continues to expand. The FDA last summer also had U. The vaccine, combined with stem cells, was being injected directly into tumors of terminally ill cancer patients and administered intravenously at Lander's and Berman's two California clinics, the agency said.

The FDA said the vaccine posed "substantial risks," including myocarditis, an inflammation of the heart muscle. Allan Camaisa, chief executive of StemImmune, said the company is "cooperating fully" and will continue talking to officials about cancer treatments. Berman said the FDA misrepresented what the clinics were doing. In recent months, the FDA has stepped up its oversight efforts.