Bioanalytical Separations (Handbook of Analytical Separations)

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Separations exploit differences in chemical properties or physical properties such as size, shape, mass, density, or chemical affinity between the constituents of a mixture. Processes are often classified according to the particular differences they use to achieve separation. If no single difference can be used to accomplish a desired separation, multiple operations can often be combined to achieve the desired end.

  • Series: Handbook of Analytical Separations.
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With a few exceptions, elements or compounds exist in nature in an impure state. Often these raw materials must go through a separation before they can be put to productive use, making separation techniques essential for the modern industrial economy. The purpose of a separation may be analytical , can be used as a lie components in the original mixture without any attempt to save the fractions, or may be preparative , i. The separation can be done on a small scale, effectively a laboratory scale for analytical or preparative purposes, or on a large scale, effectively an industrial scale for preparative purposes, or on some intermediate scale.

In some cases, separations require total purification, as in the electrolysis refining of bauxite ore for aluminum metal, but a good example of an incomplete separation technique is oil refining. Crude oil occurs naturally as a mixture of various hydrocarbons and impurities. The refining process splits this mixture into other, more valuable mixtures such as natural gas , gasoline and chemical feedstocks , none of which are pure substances, but each of which must be separated from the raw crude. In both of these cases, a series of separations is necessary to obtain the desired end products.

Volume 405, Issue 28, November 2013

In the case of oil refining, crude is subjected to a long series of individual distillation steps, each of which produces a different product or intermediate. Separators are used to divide liquids.


Vertically supported centrifuges are built with flying bearings. A separator is a continuous sedimentation centrifuge. Both exit streams are continuously discharged, using a pump under pressure or pressure free. The solid material can be discharged discontinuously chamber drum, solid walled disc drum , pseudo continuously self-cleaning disc drum or continuously nozzle drum. The drum is the centerpiece of the separator, in which the separation process takes place. There are two types of drums: the chamber drum known as chamber separators and the disc drum known as disc separators. The power transmission on the spindle and thereby on the drum can take place by using one of the three drive motors: helical gears, a belt drive or direct drive, via a special motor.

The sealing of the separators is differentiated into four types: open, semi-closed, hydro-hermetic sealing of the product space or fully hermetic absolute airtight. Chromatography separates dissolved substances by different interaction with i. Electrophoresis , separates organic molecules based on their different interaction with a gel under an electric potential i. Novel strategies for sample preparation in forensic toxicology. Bioanalysis 3 17 , — Atypical antipsychotics: trends in analysis and sample preparation of various biological samples. Bioanalysis 4 8 , Recent advances in the bioanalysis of modified nucleotides in epigenetic studies.

Bioanalysis 5 23 , Use of novel solid-phase extraction sorbent materials for high-performance liquid chromatography quantitation of caffeine metabolism products: methylxanthines and methyluric acids in samples of biological origin.


J Chromatogr B , Direct determination of four fluoroquinolones, enoxacin, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in pharmaceuticals and blood serum by HPLC. Anal Bioanal Chem , Rapid and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic determination of four cephalosporin antibiotics in pharmaceuticals and body fluids. J Chromatogr B 1 , Development of a validated HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of eight fat-soluble vitamins in biological fluids after solid phase extraction. J Chromatogr B 2 , Use of monolithic column to improve the simultaneous determination of four cephalosporin antibiotics in pharmaceuticals and body fluids by liquid chromatography after solid-phase extraction: a comparison with a conventional reversed phase silica-based column.

Development of a validated HPLC method for the determination of B-complex vitamins in pharmaceuticals and biological fluids after solid phase extraction. J Sep Sci 27, — Development of a validated HPLC method for the determination of iodotyrosines and iodothyronines in pharmaceuticals and biological samples using solid phase extraction. Simultaneous determination of quinine and chloroquine anti-malarial agents in pharmaceuticals and biological fluids by HPLC and fluorescence detection.

J Pharmac Biomedical 38 1 , Development of an HPLC method for the monitoring of tricyclic antidepressants in biofluids. J Sep Sci 30 15 , — Development and validation of an HPLC method for the determination of benzodiazepines and tricyclic antidepressants in biological fluids after sequential SPE.

Bioanalytical Separations -

J Sep Sci 31 13 , Samanidou V, Karageorgou E. Nova Publishers. Frank Columbus. A rapid HPLC method for the simultaneous monitoring of two Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors and Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: duloxetine, venlafaxine, fluoxetine and paroxetine in biofluids. Bioanalysis 1 5 , Development and validation of an HPLC method for the evaluation of niflumic acid cross-reactivity of two commercial immunoassays for cannabinoids in urine.

J Anal Toxicol 34, Development and validation of a direct Headspace GC-FID method for the determination of sevoflurane, desflurane and other volatile compounds of forensic interest in biological fluids. Application on clinical and post-mortem samples. J Sep Sci 34, — Disposable pipette extraction for gas chromatographic determination of codeine, morphine, and 6-monoacetylmorphine in vitreous humor. Bioanalysis 3 15 Bioanalysis 4 4 , — A simple HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of two selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and two serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in hair, nail clippings and cerebrospinal fluid.

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  4. J Sep Sci 35, — A validated UHPLC-DAD method for the bioanalysis of atypical antipsychotics in whole blood, urine and cerebrospinal fluid following solid phase extraction. Bioanalysis 4 24 Disposable Pipette Extraction for the simultaneous determination of biperiden and three antipsychotic drugs in human urine by gas chromatography-nitrogen phosphorous detection. Bioanalysis 5 1 Samanidou V, Nazyropoulou C.

    Pharmacologia 6 4 , Livadiotou D, Samanidou V.

    introduction to analytical separations

    Nazyropoulou C, Samanidou V. HPLC analysis of antipsychotic asenapine in alternative biomatrices: hair and nail clippings. J Liq Chromatogr Rel Technol 38, — Biomed Chromatogr 30 6 , Samanidou V. Palaiogiannis D. Kissoudi M, Samanidou V. Isolation, purification and characterization of proteins Analytical Chemistry: Developments, Applications and Challenges in Food Analysis, pp. A simple and direct HPLC-DAD method for the simultaneous determination of galantamine, donepezil and rivastigmine in cerebrospinal fluid, blood, serum and urine. J Appl Bioanal 3 4 All site content, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.

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