Changing Welfare (Issues in Childrens and Families Lives)

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They may help low-income families apply for public assistance programs or help displaced workers find educational opportunities. Some social workers explore solutions to community-wide issues, such as obesity or poverty.


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A social work degree opens the door to general social work careers, but the field also offers a variety of specializations. Child welfare social workers help children and their families resolve conflict or intervene in issues of abuse or neglect. Professionals with a bachelor's degree are qualified for entry-level roles. These social workers may also seek child welfare certification through the National Association of Social Workers.

Overview of Children and Youth Services

Individuals may work for government agencies, nonprofits, or families. A master's degree in social work allows professionals to provide a higher level of care, including diagnosis and treatment of mental health disease or emotional or behavioral disorders. Graduates holding a social work degree can work in a variety of fields, including human services, healthcare, criminal justice, and education. Many schools offer robust curriculum options that examine social work principles and ethics plus related fields of psychology or sociology.

Internships provide hands-on experience in a practical setting. While a bachelors in social work degree may allow students to meet entry-level requirements for employment, a master's in social work provides greater opportunity for career advancement and increased wages. Individuals interested in clinical social work services such as diagnosing mental illness or providing one-on-one counseling must be licensed by their state. Most states require at least a master's degree in social work, passing the Association of Social Work Boards exam, and completing a specified number of hours of supervised work.

When evaluating educational programs, prospective students should seek social work degrees accredited by the Council on Social Work Education, which is a requirement for many jobs and state licensure. Some master's degree programs offer advanced standing to students with an undergraduate degree in social work, though many programs accept related undergraduate degrees. Many on-campus programs require students to attend school full time for two years to complete the curriculum and internships.

This includes public bodies and public bodies that regulate private bodies. This has been described as the partnership between state and family. A position held in a body corporate places a person in a position of trust. Child maltreatment is the neglectful or abusive exercise of power in a position of trust by either business in delivery of the products that best serve the child's needs for the parents to provide for the child or by the parents in providing for the child with those products.

A European Commission survey on child protection systems listed the following categories of children needing help: [5]. It takes care also of child labour issues, in particular with conventions and In , an agreement was reached among UNO [ ambiguous ] countries about the military use of children. The effectiveness of these programs is contested and seems limited to some. Provincial or state governments' child protection legislation empowers the government department or agency to provide services in the area and to intervene in families where child abuse or other problems are suspected.

The agency that manages these services has various names in different provinces and states, e. There is some consistency in the nature of laws, though the application of the laws varies across the country. The United Nations has addressed child abuse as a human rights issue, adding a section specifically to children in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights :.

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Recognizing that the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding… should be afforded the right to survival; to develop to the fullest; to protection from harmful influences, abuse and exploitation; and to participate fully in family, cultural and social life.

Most countries have introduced laws to protect, prevent children and young persons from certain threats or harms. In , the Children Act was introduced followed by the Children and Young Person Act with a bundle of laws to protect young persons and children in the early 20th century.

The Children and Young Persons Act consolidated the laws into a single law. The Children Act defined child neglect and abuse as is now currently understood [6] in the context of welfare and well-being. Welfare health, safety and happiness is the 'fare', nourishment, that makes a person 'well', healthy.

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Boys were not widely perceived as sexually vulnerable, and barely featured in discussions of child assault and prostitution. Well-being is the personal motivation and aspiration for security, comfort and emotional contentment that drives the process. The offence of child cruelty under section 1 of the Children and Young Peoples Act provides protection for health and safety.

Learning, as the other essential ingredient to the pursuit of well-being, is covered by section Child protection and the prevention of neglect and abuse follows this model throughout. This was the approach that led the policy imperative for eradicating child poverty in a system of public health epidemiology. The public health imperative of well-being is exactly mirrored in the socio-economic philosophy of capabilities as welfare economics. Whilst the Children and Young People Act established the foundations they were later consolidated into the state's employment, education, health and welfare by the Children Act and following tranche of legislation.

As can be seen from the above provisions, which all follow the principles of the Children and Young Peoples Act , child protection is concerned with the child's exposure to, and consumption of, potentially hazardous products of all description. The act followed Donoghue v Stevenson [] UKHL to reflect the new law of negligence and demolition of the privily barrier in the law of contract. The new law recognised that the product manufacturer may be many parties removed from the ultimate product consumer and that the product may contain potentially hazardous but un-examinable content.

This may be either through ingredient or packaging. Food intolerances are a simple example. The purchaser will be unaware of potentiality allergic content unless clearly advised by the producer. The purchaser, or more generally ' procurer ' person who obtains , of product may not be the ultimate consumer. A parent procures for a child who is, potentially, the most vulnerable consumer.

The approach is no different to employment health and safety, but for the consumer rather than the employee. It is the "manner" of acting that is important: is this activity being carried out safely after an appropriate risk assessment to meet the duty of care in the law of negligence established by Donoghue. The person responsible for a child should know the child's food allergies and check any product content for potential food intolerances before allowing the child to consume the product.

Child safeguarding follows directly from these principles. Safeguarding means taking the necessary protective measures for the child's safe consumption of any product, stair-gates, seatbelts, protective footwear, glasses, basic hygiene, etc. The list is both endless and, to the most part, obvious common sense. Failure by the responsible person is an offence of child cruelty on the grounds of failing to protect the child in circumstances consistent with the provision of safe and effective care.

A parent, person with parental responsibility for a child, has an express liability, whoever is responsible for the child at the time s. Just as in employment health and safety, the powers of parenthood can be delegated but not the duties.

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Parents should make arrangements for suitable and properly informed others to have responsibility for their children see also s. For the product to be safely consumed by a child means that the responsible person must fully understand the product's safe use for its intended purpose. Miss-selling in the law of contract, suggesting the product does something it doesn't or selling products to those that do not fully understand what they are getting is potentially hazardous to the child as the ultimate consumer.

Health and medical treatment may involve some form of physical contact in which case lack of proper consent is a potential battery , or even assault, of the person. The procurer must be placed in a position to assess any potential risk to the child in the reliable use of the product. Just as in all of life, the likely benefits of a procured product come with possible non-beneficial qualities. Procurement is a careful activity attempting to achieve the best value for money. The benefits of the product must be satisfactorily delivered as specified for performance in the law of contract.


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  • Just as in food intolerances and consent to examination and treatment, the procurer must be made aware of any potential hazards in their circumstances of a product that performs reliably. Welfare defines the process by which proper consent or agreement is given when procuring products that will be beneficial and safe in the procurer's particular circumstances. If a child is the ultimate consumer of a procured product then the child's welfare health, safety and happiness is the paramount consideration when coming to the decision see s.

    A balance must be struck between the obligations of the producer and the obligations of the procurer for the child's safe consumption of the product. The calculus of negligence is a legal approach, in the spirit of procurement efficiency, that attempts to strike that balance on economic grounds. This is most easily understood in terms of insurance liability. Should a car driver have a duty of care towards until cyclists at night or should the cyclist have a duty of care to properly illuminate his bicycle at night?

    The costs of bicycle illumination are considerably less than the cost of driving with a duty of care to unlit cyclists. A parent must also procure obtain all necessary products, environments, accommodation, goods and services to be provided for the child's safe consumption. Failure to do so is, again, an offence of child cruelty under s. The outcome is a CAF Action Plan to safeguard and promote the child's welfare with the specified outcomes of the services that best serve the child's needs to be delivered under the terms of proper consent see 1. Decisions made on all the necessary products: environments, accommodation, goods and services procured to be provided for the child's safe consumption must be in the best interests of the child.

    A child is a person, not an object of concern who simply lacks the capacity to give consent on her own behalf until Gillick Competent to do so. Failure of the responsible person to so is an offence on the grounds of emotional neglect see, Part 2 B, 24, sentencing guidance, Overarching Principles: Overarching Principles: Assaults on children Assaults on children and Cruelty to a child ; and Introduction, Working Together to Safeguard Children HMG the governmental child protection guidance. Working Together to Safeguard Children extends mental capacity to parental capacity for a person with parental responsibility and the best interests consideration under s.

    Just as in employment health and safety, these are the risks of the present care environment. There is both a business and social imperative to give all the opportunity for safely and satisfactorily consuming the offerings of producers. Some, may not have the capacity to be capable of giving proper consent or agreement for the products that best serve their needs to use those products safely.

    Ontario Strengthens Legislation for Child, Youth and Family Services

    In the case of parents, their children's needs to keep their children safe. This is called Legal Disability. The government has demonstrated a strong commitment to, and some success in, reducing child poverty. Other impoverished groups, however, such as those on Job Seeker's Allowance or Incapacity Benefit, have not seen increases in benefit levels. While there are convincing arguments for the government's focus on child poverty rather than cross-generational social exclusion, there are still no clear principles which determine levels of investment at different life stages.

    A debate of such principles would be necessary to ensure that resources are allocated in line with international stipulations on equitable distribution such as EU, ECHR and CRC commitments. Recognising, in part, that supporting children at risk involves supporting families, the government has invested in both universal family support and child protection. It has developed integrated structures at national level, for example, by bringing together responsibility for children and families under the Department for Education and Skills.

    At local level, too, integration is apparent in proposals for Children's Trusts and measures for tracking and information exchange. Despite these positive developments, local authorities would benefit from greater guidance around prioritising investment across family support and child protection. Guidance could emerge out of a review of the relationship between the demands and resources available for social care.

    While rights issues are reflected in some of these developments, such as the appointment of a Children's Commissioner, the policy agenda, as reflected in discussion documents and debates, is largely driven by children's welfare rather than children's rights. International obligations provide a clear framework for consideration in cases of parental separation. Children have the right to be heard and to have a say over their destiny. Parents have a right to enjoy the society of their children. Children and parents have a right to family life.

    Under English law, however, the priorities are different. Children's welfare rather than children's rights is the paramount consideration. Parents' rights are not central to considerations of contact: for example, they are not embedded as a core principle of the recent Green Paper - Parental separation: Children's needs and parents' responsibilities.

    In order to meet its international obligations, the government needs to support parents in reaching decisions that maximise contact with both parties, subject to the welfare and interests of the child and the practicalities of the individual case. There is potential for considerable conflict in the field of education between the interests of children, parents and society. While parents have both a significant role in their child's education and the right, under the CRC and the HRA, to guide their child's spiritual, cultural and philosophical convictions, the State has an interest in ensuring that the adults of tomorrow are properly educated.

    For some commentators, proper education includes providing children with an 'open future' so that they are equipped to make their own choices across cultural, spiritual and economic spheres. Moreover, the CRC provides for children to exercise freedom of thought and religion, and to have a say over their life course, including over the direction of their education. The government is seeking to balance tensions between parental autonomy and children's access to an 'open future'.

    It has increased parental involvement in education, for example, by providing more information and increasing parental representation. On the other hand, there is greater direct contact between State and child, through, for example, the Connexions service, the expansion of topics covered in PSHE personal, social and health education , and the provision of sexual health advice. Overall, however, children's rights receive little recognition in the education arena. Parents' rights continue to be the dominant influence.

    Children, and in particular, young people, have little say over the choice of school, attendance, withdrawal from sex and religious education, and issues of discipline. Recent youth justice measures, such as Anti-Social Behaviour Orders and Parenting Orders, seek to promote the welfare of society; this risks being at the expense of children's and parent's rights. In the context of the CRC, the age of criminal responsibility for children is too low set at 10 in England and Wales. On the other hand, the introduction and extension of Parenting Orders, which reinforce parents' responsibilities for controlling their children's behaviour up to the age of 16, do not take account of the degree of independence of this age group.

    By threatening to criminalise parents for their children's behaviour these measures breach the spirit if not the letter of the ECHR. The government has put in place structures to support the delivery of child and family policy.